Construction Specification 32—Structure Concrete
The work shall consist of furnishing, forming, placing, finishing, and curing portland cement concrete as required to build the structures described in section 24 of this specification.
Aggregates shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 522, Aggregates for Portland Cement Concrete, unless otherwise specified. The grading of coarse aggregates shall be as specified in section 24.
Portland cement shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 531, Portland Cement, for the specified type.
Fly ash shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 532, Mineral Admixtures for Concrete.
Air-entraining admixtures shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 533, Chemical Admixtures for Concrete. If air-entraining cement is used, any additional air-entraining admixture shall be of the same type as that in the cement.
Water reducing and/or retarding admixtures shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 533, Chemical Admixtures for Concrete.
Curing compound shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 534, Concrete Curing Compound.
Preformed expansion joint filler shall conform to the requirements of Material Specification 535, Preformed Expansion Joint Filler.
Waterstops shall conform to the requirements of Material Specifications 537, Nonmetallic Waterstops, and 538, Metal Waterstops, for the specified kinds.
Water used in mixing and curing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oil, salt, acid, alkali, organic matter, or other deleterious substances.
3. Class of concrete
Concrete for structure concrete shall be classified as follows:
3000M 6 5.5
4. Air content and consistency
Unless otherwise specified, the slump shall be 3 to 5 inches. If air entrainment is specified, the air content, by volume, shall be 4 to 7 percent of the volume of the concrete. When specified, directed, or approved by the engineer, a water-reducing, set-retarding, or other admixture shall be used. High range, water reducing agents (superplasticizers) may be used to increase workability, reduce water content, and control concrete temperature in hot weather. The maximum slump after adding high range water reducing agents shall be 7.5 inches.
5. Design of the concrete mix
The proportions of the aggregates shall be such as to produce a concrete mixture that works readily into the corners and angles of the forms and around reinforcement when consolidated, but does not segregate or exude free water during consolidation.
Fly ash may be used as a partial substitution for portland cement in an amount of no more than 25 percent (by weight) of the cement in the concrete mix, unless otherwise specified.
Before the concrete is placed, the contractor shall furnish the contracting officer, for approval, a statement of the materials and mix proportions (including admixtures, if any) intended for use. The statement shall include evidence satisfactory to the contracting officer that the materials and proportions will produce concrete conforming to this specification. The materials and proportions so stated shall constitute the "job mix." After a job mix has been approved, neither the source, character, or grading of the aggregates nor the type or brand of cement or admixture shall be changed without prior notice to the contracting officer. If such changes are necessary, no concrete containing such new or altered material shall be placed until the contracting officer has approved a revised job mix.
6. Inspection and testing
The engineer shall have free entry to the plant and equipment furnishing concrete under the contract. Proper facilities shall be provided for the engineer to inspect materials, equipment, and processes and to obtain samples of the concrete. All tests and inspections will be conducted so as not to interfere unnecessarily with manufacture and delivery of the concrete.
7. Handling and measurement of material
Materials shall be stockpiled and batched by methods that prevent segregation or contamination of aggregates and ensure accurate proportioning of the ingredients of the mix. Except as otherwise provided in section 8, cement and aggregates shall be measured as follows:
Cement shall be measured by weight or in bags of 94 pounds each. When cement is measured in bags, no fraction of a bag shall be used unless weighed.
Aggregates shall be measured by weight. Mix proportions shall be based on saturated, surface-dry weight. The batch weight of each aggregate shall be the required saturated, surface-dry weight plus the weight of surface moisture it contains.
Water shall be measured, by volume or by weight, to an accuracy within 1 percent of the total quantity of water required for the batch.
Admixtures shall be measured within a limit of accuracy of 3 percent.
8. Mixers and mixing
Concrete shall be uniform and thoroughly mixed when delivered to the work site. Variations in slump of more than 1 inch within a batch are considered evidence of inadequate mixing and shall be corrected by increasing mixing time or other acceptable alternative.
For stationary mixers, the mixing time after all cement and aggregates are in the mixer drum shall be not less than 1.5 minutes. When concrete is mixed in a truck mixer, the number of revolutions of the drum or blades at mixing speed shall be not less than 70 nor more than l00.
Unless otherwise specified, volumetric batching and continuous mixing at the construction site are permitted. To produce concrete meeting the specified proportioning and uniformity requirements, the batching and mixing equipment shall conform to the requirements of ASTM Specification C 685 and shall be demonstrated by tests with the job mix before the concrete is placed. Concrete made by this method shall be produced, inspected, and certified in conformance with sections 6, 7, 8, 13, and 14 of ASTM Specification C 685.
No mixing water in excess of the amount called for by the job mix shall be added to the concrete during mixing or hauling or after arrival at the delivery point.
Forms shall be of wood, plywood, steel, or other approved material and shall be mortar tight. The forms and associated falsework shall be substantial and unyielding and shall be constructed so that the finished concrete will conform to the specified dimensions and contours. Form surfaces shall be smooth and free from holes, dents, sags, or other irregularities. Forms shall be coated with a nonstaining form release agent before being set into place.
Metal ties or anchorages within the forms shall be equipped with cones, she-bolts or other devices that permit their removal to a depth of at least 1 inch without injury to the concrete. Ties designed to break off below the surface of the concrete shall not be used without cones.
All edges that will be exposed to view when the structure is completed shall be chamfered, unless finished with molding tools as specified in Section l8.
10. Preparation of forms and subgrade
Prior to placement of concrete, the forms and subgrade shall be free of chips, sawdust, debris, water, ice, snow, extraneous oil, mortar, or other harmful substances or coatings and the temperature of all surfaces to be in contact with the new concrete shall be not be less than 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Any oil on the reinforcing steel or other surfaces required to be bonded to the concrete shall be removed. Rock surfaces shall be cleaned by air-water cutting, wet sandblasting, or wire brush scrubbing, as necessary, and shall be wetted immediately before placement of concrete. The earth surface shall be firm and damp. Placement of concrete on mud, dried earth, or uncompacted fill or frozen subgrade is not permitted.
Items to be embedded in the concrete shall be positioned accurately and anchored firmly.
Weepholes in walls or slabs shall be formed with nonferrous material.
Concrete shall be delivered to the site and discharged into the forms within l-1/2 hours after the introduction of the cement to the aggregates. In hot weather or under conditions contributing to quick stiffening of the concrete, the time between the introduction of the cement to the aggregates and discharge shall not exceed 45 minutes.
The engineer may allow a longer time, provided the setting time of the concrete is increased a corresponding amount by the addition of an approved set-retarding admixture. In any case, concrete shall be conveyed from the mixer to the forms as rapidly as practicable by methods that prevent segregation of the aggregates and assure no loss of mortar occurs.
Concrete shall not be placed until the subgrade, forms, steel reinforcement, and embedded items have been inspected and approved. No concrete shall be placed except in the presence of the engineer. The contractor shall give reasonable notice to the engineer each time concrete is to be placed. Such notice shall provide sufficient time for the engineer to inspect the subgrade, forms, steel reinforcement, and other preparations for compliance with the specifications. Other preparations include, but are not limited to, the concrete mixing plant; delivery equipment system; placing, finishing, and curing equipment and system; schedule of work; workforce; and heating or cooling facilities, if applicable. Deficiencies are to be corrected before concrete is delivered for placing.
The concrete shall be deposited as closely as possible to its final position in the forms. It shall be worked into the corners and angles of the forms and around all reinforcement and embedded items in a manner to prevent segregation of aggregates or excessive laitance. Formed concrete shall be placed in horizontal layers not more than 20 inches thick. Concrete shall not be dropped more than 5 feet vertically unless suitable equipment is used to prevent segregation. When high range water reducing agents are used, the concrete shall not be allowed to drop more than 10 feet. Hoppers and chutes, pipes, or "elephant trunks" shall be used as necessary to prevent segregation and the splashing of mortar on the forms and reinforcing steel above the layer being placed.
Immediately after the concrete is placed in the forms, it shall be consolidated by spading, hand tamping, or vibration as necessary to ensure a smooth surface and dense concrete. Each layer shall be consolidated to ensure monolithic bond with the preceding layer. If the surface of a layer of concrete in place sets to the degree that it will not flow and merge with the succeeding layer when spaded or vibrated, the contractor shall discontinue placing concrete and shall make a construction joint according to the procedure specified in section 13.
If placing is discontinued when an incomplete horizontal layer is in place, the unfinished end of the layer shall be formed by a vertical bulkhead.
13. Construction joints
Construction joints shall be made at the locations shown on the drawings. If construction joints are needed that are not shown on the drawings, they shall be placed in locations approved by the engineer.
Where a feather edge would be produced at a construction joint, as in the top surface of a sloping wall, an insert form shall be used so that the resulting edge thickness on either side of the joint is not less than 6 inches.
In walls and columns, as each lift is completed, the top surface shall be immediately and carefully protected from any condition that might adversely affect the hardening of the concrete.
Steel tying and form construction adjacent to concrete in place shall not be started until the concrete has cured at least 12 hours. Before new concrete is deposited on or against concrete that has hardened, the forms shall be retightened. New concrete shall not be placed until the hardened concrete has cured at least 12 hours.
The surface of construction joints shall be cleaned of all unsatisfactory concrete, laitance, coatings, or debris by washing and scrubbing with a wire brush or wire broom or by other means approved by the engineer. The surface shall be kept moist for at least 1 hour before the new concrete is placed.
14. Expansion and contraction joints
Expansion and contraction joints shall be made only at locations shown on the drawings.
Exposed concrete edges at expansion and contraction joints shall be carefully tooled or chamfered, and the joints shall be free of mortar and concrete. Joint filler shall be left exposed for its full length with clean and true edges.
Preformed expansion joint filler shall be held firmly in the correct position as the concrete is placed.
When open joints are specified, they shall be constructed by the insertion and subsequent removal of a wooden strip, metal plate, or other suitable template in such a manner that the corners of the concrete are not chipped or broken. The edges of open joints shall be finished with an edging tool before the joint strips are removed.
Waterstops shall be held firmly in the correct position as the concrete is placed. Joints in metal waterstops shall be soldered, brazed, or welded. Joints in rubber or plastic waterstops shall be cemented, welded, or vulcanized as recommended by the manufacturer.
16. Removal of forms
Forms shall not be removed without the approval of the engineer. Forms shall be removed in such a way as to prevent damage to the concrete. Supports shall be removed in a manner that permits the concrete to take the stresses of its own weight uniformly and gradually.
17. Finishing formed surfaces
Immediately after the forms are removed:
a. All fins and irregular projections shall be removed from exposed surfaces.
b. The holes produced on all surfaces by the removal of form ties, cone-bolts, and she-bolts shall be cleaned, wetted, and filled with a dry-pack mortar. The mortar will consist of one part portland cement, three parts sand that will pass a No. 16 sieve, and just sufficient water to produce a consistency such that the filling is at the point of becoming rubbery when the material is solidly packed.
18. Finishing unformed surfaces
All exposed surfaces of the concrete shall be accurately screeded to grade and then float finished, unless specified otherwise.
Excessive floating or troweling of surfaces while the concrete is soft is not permitted.
Adding dry cement or water to the surface of the screeded concrete to expedite finishing is not allowed.
Joints and edges on unformed surfaces that will be exposed to view shall be chamfered or finished with molding tools.
Concrete shall be prevented from drying for a curing period of at least 7 days after it is placed. Exposed surfaces shall be kept continuously moist for the entire period, or until curing compound is applied as specified below. Moisture shall be maintained by sprinkling, flooding, or fog spraying, or by covering with continuously moistened canvas, cloth mats, straw, sand, or other approved material. Wood forms left in place during the curing period shall be kept continuously wet. A formed surface shall be thoroughly wetted immediately after forms are removed and shall be kept wet until patching and repairs are completed. Water or covering shall be applied in such a way that the concrete surface is not eroded or otherwise damaged.
Concrete, except at construction joints, may be coated with the approved curing compound instead of continued application of moisture, except as otherwise specified in section 24. The compound shall be sprayed on the moist concrete surface as soon as free water has disappeared, but shall not be applied to any surface until patching, repairs, and finishing of that surface are completed. The compound shall be applied at a uniform rate of not less than 1 gallon per 175 square feet of surface and shall form a continuous adherent membrane over the entire surface. Curing compound shall be thoroughly mixed before applying and continuously agitated during application. Curing compound shall not be applied to a surface requiring bond to subsequently placed concrete, such as construction joints, shear plates, reinforcing steel, and other embedded items. If the membrane is damaged during the curing period, the damaged area shall be resprayed at the rate of application specified above. Any surface covered by the membrane shall not be trafficked unless protected from wear.
20. Removal and replacement or repair
When concrete is honeycombed, damaged, or otherwise defective, the contractor shall remove and replace the structure or structural member containing the defective concrete or, where feasible, correct or repair the defective parts. The contracting officer determines the required extent of removal, replacement, or repair. Before starting repair work, the contractor shall obtain the contracting officer's approval of the plan for repairs. The contractor shall perform all repair work in the presence of the engineer.
21. Concreting in cold weather
Concrete shall not be mixed nor placed when the daily minimum atmospheric temperature is less than 40 degrees Fahrenheit unless facilities are provided to prevent the concrete from freezing. The use of accelerators or antifreeze compounds is not allowed.
22. Concreting in hot weather
The contractor shall apply effective means to maintain the temperature of the concrete below 90 degrees Fahrenheit during mixing, conveying, and placing.
23. Measurement and payment
For items of work for which specific unit prices are established in the contract, concrete is measured to the neat lines shown on the drawings and the volume of concrete is computed to the nearest 0.l cubic yard. Measurement of concrete placed against the sides of an excavation without using intervening forms is made only to the neatness or pay limits shown on the drawings. No deduction in volume is made for chamfers, rounded or beveled edges, or for any void or embedded item that is less than 5 cubic feet in volume.
Payment for each item of structure concrete is made at the contract unit price or the contract lump sum; whichever is applicable for that item. Such payment constitutes full compensation for all labor, material, equipment, transportation, tools, forms, falsework, bracing, and all other items necessary and incidental to the completion of the work except items listed for payment elsewhere in the contract. Compensation for any item of work described in the contract, but not listed in the bid schedule, is included in the payment for the item of work to which it is made subsidiary. Such items and the items to which they are made subsidiary are identified in section 24 of this specification.
24. Items of work and construction details